HISTORY OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Complete Biography)

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ALEXANDER THE GREAT
ALEXANDERTHEGREATBiography

 

About Alexander The Great

Alexander the great is a king of Macedon form 336-323 B.C. The full name of Alexander is Alexander III of Macedon. He may claim the title of the greatest military leader. His empire spread from Gibraltar to the Punjab, and he made greek the lingua franca of his world. The Greek is the language that helped spread early Christianity. The father of Alexander is Philip II.

After his father, Philip II, unified most of the opposed city-states of Greece, Alexander continued his defeats by taking Thrace and Thebes, Syria, Assyria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, and on to the Punjab, in northern India.

Alexander Assimilated And Adopted Foreign Customs

Alexander spread trade and culture of the Greeks through the Mediterranean region and east India and founded possibly more than 70 cities. Along with spreading Hellenism, Alexander sought to interbreed with the native populations, and set an example by marrying local women. This required adaptation to the local customs as we see very clearly in Egypt, where his successor Ptolemy’s descendants adopted the local custom of pharaonic marriage to siblings. As this was true in Egypt, so it was also true in the East. So Alexander’s goal of racial fusion met resistance. The Greeks remained dominant.

Larger-Than-Life

The story of Alexander the great is told in terms of oracles, myths, and legends including his mastering of the wild horse Bucephalus, and Alexander’s pragmatic approach to severing the Gordian knot.

Alexander was still compared with Achilles, who is the Greek hero of the Trojan War. Both Alexander and Achilles chose a life that guaranteed immortal fame even at the cost of an early death. Achilles who is subordinate of great king Agamemnon, it was Alexander who was in charge, and it was his personality that kept his army on the march while holding together domains that were very diverse geographically and culturally.

Problems With His Men

The soldiers of Alexander were not always in sympathy towards their leader. His clear adoption of Persian customs caused his men who were not apprised of his motives. Did Alexander want to become a Great King, like Darius? Did he want to be worshiped as a living god? In 330 when Alexander sacked Persepolis, Plutarch says his men thought it a sign that Alexander was ready to return home. Otherwise when his men learned some threatened to mutiny. On the banks of the Tigris River, which is at Opis, Alexander executed the leaders of mutiny in 324. Soon the defected soldiers of Alexander, thought that they were being replaced with Persians and asked Alexander to accept them back again.

Evaluation

Alexander the great was ambitious, capable of fierce anger, ruthless, willful, charismatic and an innovative strategist. Many people continue to debate his motives and capabilities.

Death

Alexander died on June 11, 323 B.C. in Babylon. The cause for Alexander’s death is not known. Many suspect that Alexander’s death could have been poison or natural causes. Alexander the great died at the age of 13.

Also See: 13 Facts About Alexander The Great

TIMELINE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT

July 356 B.C.Born at Pella, Macedonia, to King Philip II and Olympias
338 B.C. AugustBattle of Chaeronea
336 B.C.Alexander becomes ruler of Macedonia
334 B.C.Wins Battle of the Granicus River against Darius III of Persia
333 B.C.Wins Battle at Issus against Darius
332 B.C.Wins siege of Tyre; attacks Gaza, which falls
331 B.C.Founds Alexandria. Wins Battle of Gaugamela against Darius
330 B.C.Sacks and burns Persepolis; trial and execution of Philotas; assassination of Parmenion
329 B.C.Crosses Hindu Kush; goes to Bactria and crosses the Oxus river and then to Samarkand.
328 B.C.Kills Black Cleitus for an insult at Samarkand
327 B.C.Marries Roxane; begins march to India
326 B.C.Wins Battle of river Hydaspes against Porus; Bucephalus dies
324 B.C.Marries Stateira and Parysatis at Susa; Troops mutiny at Opis; Hephaestion dies
June 11, 323 B.C.Dies at Babylon in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II

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